Natural Systems 
6 Sections

The Natural Systems section of the syllabus deals with the topics listed below. Bear in mind that candidates will be required to answer one question from this section of the syllabus when writing the Paper 2 of the CXC Geography Examination.

Internal Forces

The Lithosphere

Rocks, rock types and the rock cycle

Plate Tectonics

Plate tectonics theory, global plates, plate movement and plate boundaries


The occurrence and distribution of earthquakes


The process of folding, the occurrence and distribution of fold mountains

Volcanic Activity

Volcanic activity, extrusive and intrusive volcanic features

Changes in Volcanic Features

How volcanic features may change over time

External Forces

Weathering & Weathering Processes

Physical, chemical and biotic weathering

Mass Wasting Processes

Soil creep and landslides


The Water Cycle

The operation of the water cycle and definition of terms

River Processes & Drainage Patterns

Erosion, transportation, deposition and drainage patterns

River Valleys & River Features

Features found in the upper, middle and lower course of rivers

Limestone Environment

Limestone Features

Characteristics of limestone and features formed in limestone areas


Types of Waves

Constructive and destructive waves, wave erosion

Landforms created by wave processes

Features formed by wave erosion, deposition and transportation

Coral Reefs

Types, distribution and conditions necessary for their development.

Mangrove Wetlands

The importance of mangrove wetlands

Weather, Climate, Vegetation and Soil

Weather and Climate

Difference between weather and climate, elements of weather


Weather conditions associated with anticyclones

Cold Fronts

Weather conditions associated with cold fronts

Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ)

Weather conditions associated with the ITCZ

Tropical Waves

Weather conditions associated with tropical waves


Formation, classification, structure and movement of hurricanes

Factors Influencing Weather and Climate

latitude, altitude, relief, distance from the sea, winds


Definition, components of ecosystems

Equatorial Climate

Location, climate, vegetation and soil.

Tropical Continental Climate

Location, climate, vegetation and soil.

Tropical Marine Climate

Location, climate, vegetation and soil.

Faydian Gill


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